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Suggestions for contributors were also provided by Christian and Heike Guksch, Barry Kemp, Leonard and Barbara Lesko, and Bruce Trigger.

The late Bernard Bothmer offered encouragement to the project in its early stages.

Bard; with the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert. The first section of the Encyclopedia comprises fourteen overview essays.

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John Ziemba and Lea Koonce cheerfully sent many faxes for me.I would first like to thank all contributors who wrote their entries in a timely manner, and those who cheerfully volunteered to write several entries, especially Manfred Bietak, Ed Brovarski, Karl Butzer, Rosalie David, Rodolfo Fattovich, Abdel Monem Gomaa, Zahi Hawass, Christian Holzl, Timothy Kendall, Leonard and Barbara Lesko, Peter Der Manuelian, Bill Peck, Friederike Kampp Seyfried, Steve Sidebotham, Stephen Thompson, Rob Wenke, Bruce Williams, Frank Yurco, and the late I. This volume could not have been finished without the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert, who, although he came in on the project at a late date, worked with much dedication and a good eye for details. A number of professors and former graduate students in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Toronto, where I studied Egyptian archaeology, were supportive and pleased to contribute to this volume.Steven's cheerfulness and reliability are greatly appreciated. Richard Fazzini and Donald Redford graciously served as project advisors and also suggested the names of possible contributors.My colleagues in the Department of Archaeology and the African Studies Center, Farouk El-Baz in the Center for Remote Sensing, and a number of my students were encouraging and interested in the project.During my sabbatical leave at the University of Chicago in 1995-96, the project benefitted from discussions with colleagues at the Oriental Institute, and the help of Chuck Jones in the Oriental Institute Archives.

3-dc21 CIP ISBN 0-203-98283-5 Master e-book ISBN ISBN - (Adobe e-Reader Format) ISBN 0-415-18589-0 (Print Edition) To my mother, Rosemary Best Bard (1918-1997), and father, Robert Edward Bard (1918-) with thanks for all their encouragement, love, and support Contents List of illustrations Map How to use this Encyclopedia MX Acknowledgments |xxvi List of abbreviations List of contributors xxx Chronology of Ancient Egypt xliii Overview essays: Introduction |l| Paleolithic cultures g Epi-paleolithic cultures |l6| Neolithic cultures Predynastic period Early Dynastic period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period New Kingdom Third Intermediate Period |65| Late and Ptolemaic periods [70| Roman period [77| Entries A-Z Glossary Index 1092 1096 Illustrations Tables 1 Correlation of Paleolithic sequence in the Nile Valley 7 2 Distribution and chronological range of Late Paleolithic 13 industries in the lower Nile Valley 3 Chronology of tool production in the Near East 313 4 Site distribution in the Wadi Tumilat by wadi division 1080 Figures 1 Locations of published Lower Paleolithic sites 8 2 Predynastic sites in Egypt 25 3 Plan of the fort at Abu Sha'ar as it appeared following the 1993 91 excavations 4 Design on carved ivory seal, Abusir el-Meleq, grave 1035 101 5 Abydos North 107 6 Predynastic sites in the Abydos region 116 7 Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos, Cemeteries U and B (1992) 122 8 Inscribed labels from Tomb U-j, Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos 123 9 Tomb of King Qa'a, Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos 126 10 The mummy of Hefefi (from el-Hagarsa) in its wooden coffin 143 11 El-Alamein, Marina, monument and superstructure of Tomb 1 145 12 General view of the 1979 excavations at Kom el-Dikka 149 13 Plan of the major monuments in the central city at el- 169 Ashmunein 14 Archaeological sites in the Aswan region 176 15 Tentative plan of the Behbeit el-Hagara temple 191 16 The town of Berenike Panchrysos 200 17 The main fortress, Berenike Panchrysos 201 18 Bir Umm Fawakhir main settlement, southeast end 203 19 Buto, mound at Tell el-Fara'in 209 20 Remains of an Early Dynasty mudbrick building in Layer V at 212 Buto (Tell el-Fara'in) 21 Qila' el-Dabba, Balat, Dakhla Oasis: mastaba tomb of Ima- 256 Pepi I, courtyard 22 Qila' el-Dabba, Balat, Dakhla Oasis: mastaba tomb of Ima- 257 Pepi I, substructures 23 Plan of excavated remains at Ismat el-Kharab, Dakhla Oasis 262 24 Plan of Queen Hatshepsut's temple, Deir el-Bahri 277 25 The temple at Dendera 299 26 Wooden model of house and garden from the tomb of Meket- 304 Re at Deir el-Bahri (from H. Winlock) 27 Representation of Djehuty-Nefer's house in his tomb in 306 western Thebes (TT 104) and its interpretation (from H. Assad) 28 Plan of the Nubian fort at Dorginarti, Levels III and IV 309 29 Dynastic stone blades, late Predynastic to New Kingdom 312 30 Temple of Satet, Elephantine: lst/2nd Dynasties (left), 4th/5th 336 Dynasties (right) 31 Plan of Elephantine in the 1st Dynasty 337 32 Plan of Elephantine in the Middle Kingdom 339 33 Plan of Elephantine in the New Kingdom 340 34 Plan of Elephantine in the Graeco-Roman period 341 35 The enclosure wall of Elkab and its immediate surroundings 346 36 Reconstruction of the Gebel Barkal temples 388 37 Map of the site of Gebel el-Haridi, with enlargement showing 391 the mudbrick settlement on the lower slopes of Abu el-Nasr (possibly a fortified monastery) 38 Gebel Zeit, plan of Mine 399: the three main levels 401 39 Tomb of Queen Hetepheres at Giza: detail of the butterfly- 406 pattern bracelets as discovered lying in her jewelry box in 1926 40 Drawing of the reconstructed contents of the tomb of Queen 407 Hetepheres at Giza 41 Mortuary temple of Khafre's pyramid complex 410 42 Diorite statue of Khafre found in the valley temple 411 43 Valley temple and Sphinx Temple of Khafre 's pyramid 413 complex 44 The Giza pyramids 414 45 Cross-section plan of Khufu's pyramid tomb at Giza 415 46 Plan of King Menkaure's pyramid complex at Giza 420 47 Alabaster statue of King Menkaure 421 48 Tombs of Giza artisans 426 49 Gurob, New Kingdom settlement and northern cemeteries 430 50 Location of Akhenaten's Gm-p3-itn temple at East Karnak 472 51 Karnak, plan of the Montu precinct 474 52 Karnak, precinct of Mut 478 53 Plan of the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak 482 54 Theban necropolis, western part of the Late period necropolis 522 at el-Asasif 55 A typical tomb of the 26th Dynasty at el-Asasif (belonging to 524 Ankh-Hor, High Steward of the Divine Votaress) 56 A typical tomb of the 26th Dynasty at Saqqara (belonging to 525 Amen-Tefnakht, Commander of the Recruits of the Royal Guards) 57 Plan of the temple of Luxor 542 58 Ma'adi pottery 550 59 King Herihor offering ma'at to Khonsu 554 60 Map of Lake Maryut/Mareotis, showing the location of Marea 560 61 Plan of Marea waterfront (by Thomas Boyd) 561 62 Plan of structures on Bates's Island, Marsa Matruh 565 63 Central Marsa Matruh and the eastern lagoon system as far east 567 as Ras Alam el-Rum 64 Medamud: A, types of bread molds found at the site; B, plan of 574 the First Intermediate Period temple; C, plan of the Middle Kingdom temple 65 Medamud: plan of the Graeco-Roman period temple 576 66 The monuments at Medinet Habu, overall plan 580 67 View of the western cemetery at Giza, taken from the top of 595 the Great Pyramid 68 Basic elements of a typical Old Kingdom mastaba tomb 597 69 Plan of the Neolithic site of Merimde 605 70 Plan of the site of Meroe and its cemeteries 610 71 Plan of the Northern "Royal Cemetery" (Beg N) at Meroe 612 72 Conjectural restoration of pyramids Beg N 11, Beg N 12 and 613 Beg N 13 at Meroe 73 Map of the city of Meroe 618 74 Plan of the "Sun Temple" complex at Meroe 621 75 "Elite" burial of the 1st Dynasty at Minshat Abu Omar with 638 two chambers; the larger chamber had been robbed (Tomb 1590) 76 Mons Porphyrites, settlements and quarries 641 77 Wooden model boat with crew, intended for the tomb owner to 645 sail south (upstream) with the wind.

Klasse Fouilles de I'lnstitut frangais d'archeologie orientale, Caire Gottinger Miszellen, Gottingen Hildesheimer Agyptologische Beitrage, Hildesheim IEJ JAA JAOS JARCE JEA JFA JMA JNES JSSEA JWP LA LAAA MAS MIFAO MDAIK MMJ NARCE OIP Rd E SAOC SDAIK WA z As Israel Exploration Journal, Jerusalem Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Journal of the American Oriental Society Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Journal of Field Archaeology Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology Journal of Near Eastern Studies Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Journal of World Prehistory Lexikon der Agyptologie, ed. Anderson University of Pittsburgh Robert Anderson Wendy Anderson Mc Gill University George Armelagos Emory University David Aston Austrian Archaeological Institute, Cairo John Baines Oriental Institute, University of Oxford Barbara E.

Barich University of Rome "La Sapienza" Farouk EI-Baz Centre for Remote Sensing, Boston University Robert Bianchi Manfred Bietak Institute of Egyptology, University of Vienna Edward Bleiberg Brooklyn Museum of Art Ann Bomann American Schools of Oriental Research Douglas Brewer The Spurlock Museum, University of Illinois Edwin Brock Canadian Institute in Egypt Edward Brovarski Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Stanley Burstein California State University, Los Angeles Karl W.

Centre Franco-Egyptien de Karnak Giinther Garbrecht Technical University of Braunschweig Achilles Gautier University of Gent Jeremy Geller Hobart and William Smith Colleges, New York Ogden Goelet New York University Jean-Claude Golvin Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique, France Farouk Goniaa Institute of Egyptology, University of Tubingen Darlene Gorzo University of Toronto Arvid Gottlicher Lynda Green Royal Ontario Museum Christian Guksch Kirgisische Staatliche National Universitat M.

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John Ziemba and Lea Koonce cheerfully sent many faxes for me.

I would first like to thank all contributors who wrote their entries in a timely manner, and those who cheerfully volunteered to write several entries, especially Manfred Bietak, Ed Brovarski, Karl Butzer, Rosalie David, Rodolfo Fattovich, Abdel Monem Gomaa, Zahi Hawass, Christian Holzl, Timothy Kendall, Leonard and Barbara Lesko, Peter Der Manuelian, Bill Peck, Friederike Kampp Seyfried, Steve Sidebotham, Stephen Thompson, Rob Wenke, Bruce Williams, Frank Yurco, and the late I. This volume could not have been finished without the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert, who, although he came in on the project at a late date, worked with much dedication and a good eye for details. A number of professors and former graduate students in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Toronto, where I studied Egyptian archaeology, were supportive and pleased to contribute to this volume.

Steven's cheerfulness and reliability are greatly appreciated. Richard Fazzini and Donald Redford graciously served as project advisors and also suggested the names of possible contributors.

My colleagues in the Department of Archaeology and the African Studies Center, Farouk El-Baz in the Center for Remote Sensing, and a number of my students were encouraging and interested in the project.

During my sabbatical leave at the University of Chicago in 1995-96, the project benefitted from discussions with colleagues at the Oriental Institute, and the help of Chuck Jones in the Oriental Institute Archives.

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John Ziemba and Lea Koonce cheerfully sent many faxes for me.I would first like to thank all contributors who wrote their entries in a timely manner, and those who cheerfully volunteered to write several entries, especially Manfred Bietak, Ed Brovarski, Karl Butzer, Rosalie David, Rodolfo Fattovich, Abdel Monem Gomaa, Zahi Hawass, Christian Holzl, Timothy Kendall, Leonard and Barbara Lesko, Peter Der Manuelian, Bill Peck, Friederike Kampp Seyfried, Steve Sidebotham, Stephen Thompson, Rob Wenke, Bruce Williams, Frank Yurco, and the late I. This volume could not have been finished without the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert, who, although he came in on the project at a late date, worked with much dedication and a good eye for details. A number of professors and former graduate students in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Toronto, where I studied Egyptian archaeology, were supportive and pleased to contribute to this volume.Steven's cheerfulness and reliability are greatly appreciated. Richard Fazzini and Donald Redford graciously served as project advisors and also suggested the names of possible contributors.My colleagues in the Department of Archaeology and the African Studies Center, Farouk El-Baz in the Center for Remote Sensing, and a number of my students were encouraging and interested in the project.During my sabbatical leave at the University of Chicago in 1995-96, the project benefitted from discussions with colleagues at the Oriental Institute, and the help of Chuck Jones in the Oriental Institute Archives.

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