Valuing and validating bilingualism in canada
In each of the eight countries compared, skills in a second language are estimated to be a major factor constraining wage opportunities. Language-in-education policies, decision making analysis, non-cooperative game, language skills, hierarchical linear modeling, human capital theory, rate of return analysis, postcolonial Africa, IALS, SACMEQApple, M. Levels of Comparison in Educational studies : Different Insights from Different Literatures and the Value of Multilevel Analyses. Multilevel models in educational and social research. Fribourg : Editions Universitaires Fribourg Suisse. It presents results from eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). The study finds commonalities between countries in terms of the valuing of language skills, independent of the type of language policy applied at the national level. Sociologie et interdisciplinarite: modalites, problemes, perspectives.
Finally, the third study, Language Skills and Economic Returns, investigates the economic returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. Schools, classrooms and pupils: International studies of schooling from a multilevel perspective. In T., Skutnabb-Kangas (Ed.), Multilingualism for All. Quebec: International Center for Research on Bilingualism. Research Possibilities on Group Bilingualism: a Report. L’amenagement linguistique dans le monde, Quebec : TLFQ, Universite Laval.